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Paper Description


Soil Salinization in some Irrigated Areas of the Kingdom of Bahrain


Authors: Asma Ali Abahussain, Abdelhadi Abdelwahab Mohamed, Ahmed Ali Salih, Ahmed Al Safe, Nadir Abdul Hamed & Yahya Othman
Abstract: Monitoring and assessment of agricultural land degradation is of vital importance for better land and water management planning and reclamation. It requires setting baseline information and basic analysis at specific time and space. About 33 geo-referenced soil sampling spots were selected in two agricultural production locations in the Kingdom of Bahrain to assess the status and preliminary causes of land degradation. Soil samples were taken from 13 sites in Diraz location while 19 samples were taken from Budayyi location. The samples were taken to 90 cm depth at 30 cm intervals. Standard procedures were followed to determine soil physiochemical properties. In addition, field observations on farm condition, distance from the sea, method of irrigation and irrigation water source were taken. Some of the soil samples were deliberately taken from outside the irrigated basins among trees compared with samples taken from inside the actively growing area for comparison. The results indicated that the salinity level was significantly (P < 0.001) higher at the 0-30 cm soil depth compared with 30-60 cm or 60-90 cm depths in both locations. The distance from the sea did not show clear correlation with surface soil salinity in Budayyi area compared with Diraz. Both locations showed significantly higher salinity levels on samples taken outside the actively growing areas compared with those taken from within. The effect is more prominent at the 0-30 cm depth. The observed variability on salinity levels may be attributed to farm management practices and deteriorating quality of ground water. Thus, agricultural land degradation in Bahrain cannot be attributed to ground water deterioration alone. The use of tertiary treated sewage water (TSE) may ease the pressure on ground water, but the pH of the TSE should be carefully monitored and managed with proper studies on leaching requirements to avoid further salinity complications.
Published in: Journal of Agricultural Science & Technology A;4(2):112-122
URL: http://www.davidpublishing.com/journals_info.asp?jId=1843
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